A widely used tool of engineering R&D is the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) experiment. Instead of building the full prototype of a developed machine, only its most critical parts are constructed physically, while the rest of the machine is emulated by means of actuators, sensors, and digital control in between. If the mathematical model of the rest of the machine is available, the control unit can provide a realistic environment for the physically constructed test part. The control, however, introduces digital effects into this system which is originally continuous. From dynamical view-point, the most relevant digital effects are the appearances of delay and zero-order-hold (ZOH). The nonlinear dynamics of the real system and the one emulated by means of the HIL experiment are compared from stability and nonlinear vibrations view-point in case of a brake system where stick-slip phenomenon occurs. The limitations of HIL experiments are identified by means of Hopf bifurcation calculations, numerical simulations and dynamic measurements carried out on the corresponding experimental test rig.
The introductory part of the lecture will present the concept of the ERC advanced grant project and the role of HIL in the development of new milling tools for metal cutting, and the concluding part of the lecture will present the application of the results for the development of HIL experiments in case of high-speed-milling (HSM).
The finite element method (FEM) is a fundamental tool of the numerical solution of real-life problems based on partial differential equations. In the recent decades, various generalizations of the standard FEM have been developed. A lot of such extensions have been motivated by difficulties, arising in physical or engineering problems, that may be cumbersome to overcome with standard FEM techniques. Such situations are the presence of boundary layers, singularities or discontinuities in the solution, complex and/or evolving geometry of the physical domains etc. The tools of extension of the FEM may be enriching the polynomial approximation space with non-polynomial shape functions, allowing general polygonal/polyhedral cells, or use a boundary-unfitted mesh and restricted shape functions (either to a bulk domain or to a surface). This survey type talk gives a brief introduction to the main ideas of some generalized FEMs that use the above ideas: XFEM, VEM, CutFEM and TraceFEM.